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李浩然, 阮征, 刘黎平, 陈羿辰, 毕永恒, 张云, 陈洪滨, 毛节泰. 2023: 地基多波长雷达垂直探测云降水微物理特征研究进展. 暴雨灾害, 42(4): 361-371. doi: 10.12406/byzh.2023-075
引用本文: 李浩然, 阮征, 刘黎平, 陈羿辰, 毕永恒, 张云, 陈洪滨, 毛节泰. 2023: 地基多波长雷达垂直探测云降水微物理特征研究进展. 暴雨灾害, 42(4): 361-371. doi: 10.12406/byzh.2023-075
LI Haoran, RUAN Zheng, LIU Liping, CHEN Yichen, BI Yongheng, ZHANG Yun, CHEN Hongbin, MAO Jietai. 2023: Research progress in profiling cloud and precipitation microphysics characteristic with ground-based multi-frequency radars. Torrential Rain and Disasters, 42(4): 361-371. doi: 10.12406/byzh.2023-075
Citation: LI Haoran, RUAN Zheng, LIU Liping, CHEN Yichen, BI Yongheng, ZHANG Yun, CHEN Hongbin, MAO Jietai. 2023: Research progress in profiling cloud and precipitation microphysics characteristic with ground-based multi-frequency radars. Torrential Rain and Disasters, 42(4): 361-371. doi: 10.12406/byzh.2023-075

地基多波长雷达垂直探测云降水微物理特征研究进展

Research progress in profiling cloud and precipitation microphysics characteristic with ground-based multi-frequency radars

  • 摘要: 雷达作为一种遥感探测仪器,在云和降水的观测中发挥着重要作用。然而,由于不同水凝物粒子在形状、密度、粒径、主轴取向和谱分布等方面的巨大差异,单部雷达的反射率因子对云降水系统内部微物理特征的准确量化存在困难。近年来,水凝物粒子散射理论、电子计算机和毫米波器件技术的进步加速了多波长雷达遥感技术的应用,为进一步认识云微物理过程和改进云微物理方案提供了重要观测依据。多波长垂直探测雷达技术已经从散射理论催生新的观测方法进入到观测试验揭示关键云降水微物理过程的阶段。本文从雷达反演液态和固态水凝物的角度,讨论基于水凝物粒子衰减和散射特性的地基双波长和三波长垂直探测雷达遥感技术研究进展,介绍了国内外地基多波长云雷达实验的研究进展,并从粒子散射理论出发,提出多波长雷达正在从传统波段组合(如W/Ka/X波段)向结合更短波长和更长波长的“三波长+”方向发展。随着卫星雷达载荷从单波长到双波长,地基多波长气象雷达遥感技术的发展将为下一代星载多波长雷达载荷的研制提供有力支撑。

     

    Abstract: Meteorological radars, as remote sensing instruments, play a vital role in observing clouds and precipitation. However, due to the complexity of hydrometeors in shape, density, diameter, orientation, and particle size distributions, accurate quantification of the inner microphysical characteristics of a cloud/precipitation system is challenging for a single-frequency radar. Recently, the advancement in scattering theory of hydrometeors, computer science, and hardware manufacturing (such as millimeter-wave devices) has stimulated the application of multi-frequency radars, bringing novel observations for an improved understanding of cloud and precipitation microphysics. Over the past few years, the multi-frequency vertical detection techniques have evolved from the new retrieval methods being enlightened by scattering theory to a new stage of the crucial microphysical processes being revealed by field observations. In this paper, from the perspectives of liquid and frozen hydrometeor microphysics, we introduce the key techniques used for dual- and triple-frequency radar retrieval techniques based on the scattering and attenuation of hydrometeors. Meanwhile, enlightened by the scattering of hydrometeors, we propose that the multi-frequency radar detecting techniques are developing from the classical W/Ka/X wavelengths to a "triple-frequency plus" stage, involving radars with shorter wavelengths and/or longer wavelengths. With spaceborne radars being developed from single-frequency to dual-frequency radars, the improvement of ground-based multi-frequency radars is expected to provide crucial support to future spaceborne multi-frequency radar missions.

     

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