Meteorological radars, as remote sensing instruments, play a vital role in observing clouds and precipitation. However, due to the complexity of hydrometeors in shape, density, diameter, orientation, and particle size distributions, accurate quantification of the inner microphysical characteristics of a cloud/precipitation system is challenging for a single-frequency radar. Recently, the advancement in scattering theory of hydrometeors, computer science, and hardware manufacturing (such as millimeter-wave devices) has stimulated the application of multi-frequency radars, bringing novel observations for an improved understanding of cloud and precipitation microphysics. Over the past few years, the multi-frequency vertical detection techniques have evolved from the new retrieval methods being enlightened by scattering theory to a new stage of the crucial microphysical processes being revealed by field observations. In this paper, from the perspectives of liquid and frozen hydrometeor microphysics, we introduce the key techniques used for dual- and triple-frequency radar retrieval techniques based on the scattering and attenuation of hydrometeors. Meanwhile, enlightened by the scattering of hydrometeors, we propose that the multi-frequency radar detecting techniques are developing from the classical W/Ka/X wavelengths to a "triple-frequency plus" stage, involving radars with shorter wavelengths and/or longer wavelengths. With spaceborne radars being developed from single-frequency to dual-frequency radars, the improvement of ground-based multi-frequency radars is expected to provide crucial support to future spaceborne multi-frequency radar missions.